Agulto, Valynn Katrine Mag-usara of Osaka University, Toshiyuki Iwamoto of Nippo Precision Co., Ltd., Professor Yoshinao Kumagai, Associate Professor Hisashi Murakami, and Assistant Professor Ken Goto of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology employed a noninvasive technique called terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)  to investigate β-Ga2O3 materials using THz waves  and demonstrated the viability of this tool for the practical evaluation of β-Ga2O3-based devices. THz-TDS is used to measure the permittivity of a material--a fundamental property that describes how much electrical energy the material can store and is an important parameter relevant to power devices. The researchers determined the permittivity of β-Ga2O3 in the THz region using the THz-TDS technique. From the permittivity, they were also able to extract the electrical properties such as carrier density and resistivity with an accuracy that is comparable to conventional albeit invasive measurement methods used in the semiconductor industry. The researchers believe that the application of THz-TDS in semiconductor characterization would be advantageous towards the rapid development of β-Ga2O3 materials for future power devices. The article, "Anisotropic complex refractive index of β-Ga2O3 bulk and epilayer evaluated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," was published online in Applied Physics Letters on January 25, 2021, 11:00 AM Eastern Standard Time (January 26, 2021, 1:00 AM Japan Standard Time) at DOI: https:/ Terahertz frequencies (about 100 GHz to 10 THz) lie between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, with the frequency band around 100 GHz being considered as an ultra-high frequency region for the next-generation communication band also known as Beyond 5G/6G. By studying the interaction of semiconductors with THz radiation, various information about the semiconductor properties can be acquired. The THz-TDS investigation of β-Ga2O3 materials--semi-insulating bulk crystal and doped homoepitaxial film-- was led by Associate Professor Makoto Nakajima of the Institute of Laser Engineering. The transmission of THz beam through the β-Ga2O3 materials was measured using the equipment developed by Nippo Precision Co. Ltd. (PNP) called Tera Prospector . Since β-Ga2O3 is an anisotropic crystal (i.e., its properties vary along different crystal axes), the transmission measurements were done along two different crystal directions that are parallel to the a and b crystal axes. By evaluating the measured transmission, fundamental material properties such as the anisotropic complex refractive index  in the THz region were determined. The complex refractive index is in turn related to the material's permittivity. Using the THz-TDS technique, the researchers succeeded in obtaining the complex refractive index spectra in the terahertz band which is an ultra-high frequency region. Figure 2 shows the complex refractive index of the semi-insulating bulk crystal and the doped homoepitaxial film (or epilayer) in the THz region measured by THz-TDS.https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-01/ou-amt012521.php
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Foreign Travel for U.S. Citizens May Return with COVID Contact Tracing, Testing: Airlines More airlines will start requesting passengers' personal information to boost contact tracing during the coronavirus pandemic in a move the aviation industry hopes will encourage lawmakers to lift international travel restrictions. The trade group Airlines for America said that passenger information such as names, email addresses, phone numbers, as well as addresses of their U.S. locations will be passed onto the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) Delta Airlines and United Airlines have been collecting that information since the end of last year, but other airlines will follow suit, including Alaska Airlines, American Airlines , Hawaiian Airlines, JetBlue Airways and Southwest Airlines. Passengers wearing masks arrive at Dulles International Airport March 13, 2020. More airlines will pass on passenger data to the CDC in a bid to free up international travel for U.S. citizens.Win McNamee/Getty Images Airlines for America, CEO Nicholas Calio, said he hoped the voluntary decision to gather and pass on the data to the CDC would assure people that the aviation industry and the federal government "are prioritizing the health and safety of passengers and crew." "We are hopeful that this measure, coupled with existing testing requirements for passengers flying to the U.S., will lead policymakers to lift travel restrictions so that international travel can resume and the social and economic benefits of that travel can be realized," he said in a statement. Newsweek has contacted Airlines for America for comment. Airlines have been reluctant to gather such information over concerns that the process would be time consuming and require expensive computer upgrades. Also, the data was often not available on passengers who bought tickets from vendors such as online outlets, the Associated Press reported. Cities Facing the Biggest Revenue Losses Due to COVID-19 It comes as airlines and unions representing the aviation industry raised concerns that President Joe Biden 's administration was looking at putting in place a COVID-19 testing requirement for all domestic air travellers. The CDC requires all travellers to prove they had a negative COVID-19 test result within three days of their scheduled flight before travel to the United States. But Delta Air Lines CEO Ed Bastian said that making domestic passengers show proof article of a negative COVID-19 test would mean travel with the U.S. "would be substantially reduced." The pandemic has hit the aviation industry hard. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) said this month that 2020 was the worst year in the history of global aviation, with passenger traffic declining by 65.9 percent compared with 2019.https://www.newsweek.com/airlines-contact-tracing-coronavirus-testing-cdc-1570728